- Rolling updates every 6 months since Windows 10 (
- The Microsoft Active Directory service allows the centralised management of Microsoft devices.
- Active Directory provides:
- centralised authentication & authorisation,
- device configuration.
- Active Directory is structured according to three hierarchical levels:
- domain: logical group of network objects,
- tree: collection of domains,
- forest: collection of trees.
- Active Directory objects include:
- organizational units.
- Store all of the domain data in the NTDS.dit file.
Group Object Policy (GPO)
- GPO centralises the Windows device configuration.
- GPO is stored on the SYSVOL share as XML files.
- Member computers retrieve and apply them on boot and on a regular basis.
- Performed by the LSASS process and coordinated by Winlogon.
- Winlogon: creates and manages local sessions.
- LSASS: authenticates users & issues access tokens.
- Authorisation is verified by the SRM upon the Object Manager request. It compares the access tokens with the Access control list (Security Descriptor) and Integrity level.
- A secure object is protected by a Security Descriptor.
- It indicates who can do what.
SID & RID
- Relative ID, starts at 1000.
- 500 = Administrator
- 501 = Guest
- Constant SIDs:
- S-1-0-0: Nobody
- S-1-1-0: Everybody
- S-1-2-0: LOCAL
- Ends with
- Represents the computer in a Windows domain.
- Created when the computer joins the domain
- Password managed by the domain controller.
- Stored in binary format (.evtx, .evl). Event View needed.